Malignant neoplasm is notorious as cancer, a fatal non-communicable disease that has devastated millions of lives over the years. For beating cancer, there are two critical domain diagnostic and therapies on cancer research. Early-stage cancer detection can be cured through proper treatment and would increase the life expectancy of the patient. The biopsy needs to perform, which is a pernicious method under microscopy for a regular check out on cancer cells. The positive biopsy is a sign of cancer presence that requires instantons treatment to eradicate the cancer cell or slow down its growth, which depends on the type and stage of cancer, includes chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or hormone therapy, or combination of all. Owing to both diagnostic and treatment is time-consuming that is direful to patients.
According to WHO, environmental pollution like air, water, and soil with carcinogenic contaminants contributes to the cancer burden and caused fatalness prematurely. In such a case, climate change would act as adds fuel to the fire that’s happening in terms of skin and lung cancer. To overcome this overwhelming, devise approach could help to diagnose and treat the disease based on an instantaneous mechanism that determines specific cancer cell and deliver drugs to resist its growth, synchronously.
Nanomaterial production is growing at a fast pace and is widely in use in consumer products and other engineering applications. The science of tiny particles like nanomaterials has a more extensive footprint on innovative medical science. They are specially designed for early diagnosis, cancer cells, when attached with nanomaterial, make tumors visible in scans in the earlier development, which is vital for cancer treatment. A powerful weapon in cancer diagnosis is to inject nanomaterials directly into the cancerous tumor, which then damage or kill, or even resist the growth of cancer cells.
Nanodiagnostic based on the biosensor, the primary technique using Graphene, Quantum Dots, Silver, Gold, and Platinum nanoparticles to detect small DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) fragments that has higher sensitivity than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nano-diagnostic is not a pernicious method for diagnostic and monitoring purposes, which have a long way to go for the patient ahead of clinical symptoms at a single-cell level. This enables detection of the early development stage, contributes to patient survival.
Nanocarriers (nanomaterials used for delivery of anti-cancer drugs) are helping to eradicate the challenges of effective drug delivery to the targeted site that has the potential to boost better pharmacogenetic features, longer blood circulation time, cellular uptake and distribution volume. As a result of all potential significantly improve drug delivery against therapy that is failed to perform.
Meantime, nanomedicine is under the developing phase, which relies on the development of nanorobots and molecular machines that can identify pathogens and replace cells or cellular components in vivo. Nanomedicine could integrate the advances of genomics and proteomics into molecular medicine that will lead to the development of personalized medicine and allow for a better understanding of diseases for patient-tailored therapies.
In the future, the development of multifunctional and multipurpose nanocarriers and nanoparticles will accelerate the progress of “Precision Medicine” to reduced side effects overdosage efficacy.
“We don’t just need precision medicine we need precision health”, said Lloyd Minor, Dean School of Medicine at Stanford University.
“Precision Health” reimagines medicine to focus on predicting, preventing, and curing disease precisely that emphasis on catching Cancer before it strikes. Only possible synchronous of diagnostic and treatment by integrating biosensor and nanocarriers that will lead the development of “Precision Medicine” to “Precision Health.” Depicts, a fundamental shift to more proactive and personalized care that empowers people to lead healthy lives.
Theranostics has emerged as a promising strategy for efficient treatment for cancer. Functionalized inorganic-organic hybrid nanomaterials known as Aggregation-induced emission plasminogen (AIEgen), which can be used as excellent platforms for the integration of cancer diagnostic and therapy. Recently, MIT engineers have designed tiny robots powered by a magnetic field that can help drug-delivery nanomaterials push their way out of the bloodstream and into tumors or other disease sites that overcome a significant barrier to that kind of payload getting into the tissue. These developments back catching Cancer before it strikes to lead “Precision Health.”
Even though the implications of Nanomaterials aim to increase the benefits of the patient, their use raises the question of the risks they impose on human and environments subjects. Nanotoxicology of nanomaterials, intellectual property dint of complex structures, nanomedicine accumulation into non-targeted organs, anatomical and physiological differences between animals (rodents), and humans should be taken into consideration.
Vision, nanomaterial has the great potential to beat cancer in the first generation of the 21st century and will be no more fatal disease.
Also, give a read; The taboo around cancer in women
Ahsan Maqbool is a passionate Environmental Engineer working on remediation nanotechnology for the sustainability of resources. Ahsan pleasured to interact with people for different cultural background for humanitarian action.