Pakistan is endowed with diversified natural capital spanning from a long coast to the second-highest mountain peak (K2) of the world. The 990 kilometers long coastline, shared by the coastal provinces of Sindh and Balochistan, leads onto the maritime zones of Pakistan. The important sea turtle nesting beaches along the Pakistan coast include Sandspit and Hawksbay beaches near Karachi, and Ormara-Taq Beach, Astola Island and17 Daran beaches along the Makran coast. These beaches are nesting sites of sea turtles that lay their eggs on these beaches during July to December.
Saadeqa Khan, Chief Editor Scientia Pakistan, spoke to Dr. M Shoaib Kiani, a senior professor at the Institute of Marine Sciences Karachi University, about the issues the coastal belt of Sindh and Balochistan are facing.
Scientia: Let us know the scope of marine biology in Pakistan and the research on marine life especially Turtles?
Dr. Kiani: Marine Biology and Marine Science as subjects are being taught at Karachi University (i.e. Institute of Marine Science and Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology) and the Lasbela University of Agriculture Water and Marine Science. Different degree programs that are running in these universities are B. Sc. (Hons.), BS, M.Sc., M.Phil. and Ph.D. In addition, various national and international level conferences, symposia, training sessions, and seminars are organized from time to time.
Over the years these institutions have done a pretty good job in producing human resources to work in Marine Science and allied fields. However, the fact cannot be negated that not all graduates of these institutions get proper jobs in relevant GOs and NGOs. Perhaps the most striking reasons for this include lack of proactive approach by the management of these institutions in the sourcing of job opportunities and linkages with job providers, lack of proper training, and absence of career counseling services. Others include the in-built and long-standing issues of most of our educational institutions. Many of these problems are related to the shortage of human resources and proper funding. These institutions need to be led by able and merit-based leadership with progress and extension oriented visionary approach.
It is the need of the time to promote Marine Science and allied fields and transform courses and teaching methodologies in order to streamline with modern trends. The current scenario of fast degradation of marine resources and a decline in biodiversity demands more problem-solving research and more collaborative and large scale studies.
Part two of your first question pertains to research on marine turtles in these institutions. But first I would like to stress upon the uniqueness of marine turtles as animals and their very long evolutionary history. Marine turtles have been present on the face of our planet ever since the presence of dinosaurs in the Jurassic period i.e. since 201 Million Years ago. If we look into the fact that dinosaurs became extinct a very long time ago but these turtles continued till today and that too with very little change in their structure.
This makes their evolutionary history quite remarkable and outstanding. But we should better mind the fact that although, they remained resilient during drastic changes on earth throughout their existence, in today’s age of man’s domination over other life forms (called Anthropocene) and many man-made catastrophes, all species of marine turtles are finding it extremely hard to cope with. As a result of this, all seven species of marine turtles have been declared “Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
All of these turtles are leading their lives with an insecure future and are facing many difficulties, especially habitat degradation. Their habitats are being affected by human activity quite rapidly. Other than this, illegal wildlife trade, accidental entanglements in fishing gear, pollution, poaching, the use of several of their body parts in medicines due to various and stealing their eggs from their nests before hatching are some common conservation issues. This is a species in which survival rate is just one percent. Out of every hundred hatchlings, only one reaches adulthood. The rest either serve as food for natural predators or fall prey to various human activities.
Marine turtles have been present on the face of our planet ever since the presence of dinosaurs in the Jurassic period i.e. since 201 Million Years ago. If we look into the fact that dinosaurs became extinct a very long time ago but these turtles continued till today and that too with very little change in their structure.
Regarding research on marine turtles, the Department of Zoology, the University of Karachi in collaboration with the Sindh Wildlife Department (SWD) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF-P) has conducted pioneering and classical studies on turtle nesting performance, hatchlings recovery and ex-situ transfer for controlled release into the ocean. Dr. Fehmeeda Firdous conducted the study as part of her Ph.D. She has started some astonishing findings in her Ph.D. thesis, which provide beneficial insights into the lives of these amazing creatures and also serve as a guide for future research.
Scientia: What affective part Wildlife Pakistan is playing in such research projects on marine sciences?
Dr. Kiani: WWF-P has done a lot of work in the coastal areas of Karachi like Hawks Bay and Sandspit turtle nesting beach specifically on safeguarding turtle nests, control of poaching and natural predators e.g., feral dogs, recovery of hatchlings and their safe release into the sea. Other than this, some studies on marine turtles have been carried out by the Center of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi. Currently, a bunch of students of mine at the Institute of Marine Science and I are working on two projects on marine turtles.
One is regarding research on turtles’ illegal trade which a B.Sc. Hons level research project and another one is on the prevalence of microplastics in the sediments of Hawkes Bay turtle nesting beach. Both projects came up with some intriguing findings which emphasize regular and more focused studies on marine turtles. We found that microplastics are found in abundance which has the capacity to more heat thus possibly raising the temperature of turtle nesting beaches. Due to this, the sex ratio of eggs is likely to get affected as studies elsewhere have proven that more females are born, and hence sex ratio is disturbed in such temperatures. This needs to be verified in future studies in Pakistan.
Another worth mentioning research effort on marine turtles in Pakistan is by WWF-Pakistan in which they put satellite tags on some green turtles to study their whereabouts, home range, associated behavior, and conservation issues some years back. This is an example of the use of modern, sophisticated technology in marine research in Pakistan. I am firmly in favor of initiating more of such studies so that we get to know more about their lives.
Another effort by the Ministry of Environment’s Pakistan Wetlands Programme (PWP), which began in 2005, is also on record. Under this project, research was conducted in the coastal areas of Karachi and Balochistan (Daran Beach) on the subject of turtle nesting and its performance. They have published their work, which can search online. In the coming years, we want to considerably increase our understanding of marine turtles, which can only be accomplished if we raise the scope of our studies at par with international research. Marine turtles feature in our priority species for the next five years, and we will try to tackle a lack of sound scientific data for their optimal conservation and management.
Scientia: What should Government and academic institutions do in order to raise awareness of marine sciences in the fishermen and the general public?
Dr. Kiani: To raise awareness on marine ecosystems in the general public, scientists and professionals need to highlight those aspects of marine science which are attractive to familiar people, like flagship species, and can stimulate them to ponder upon their current statuses, issues and need for their conservation. One surprising fact is that we people in Pakistan have never appreciated the sea and the coastal areas. We always regard the sea as something mind-boggling and have never tried to study and understand it. Our communities, specifically in inland areas, have mere awareness of the sea, and similarly, marine science and its concepts.
I teach students of B.Sc. Hons and M.Sc. level. These students mainly come from the coastal areas of Karachi and other areas of Pakistan, but during their early 3 to 4 semesters, the only question they have for us is regarding the scope of their degree in Marine Science. This is very surprising because if we look worldwide right now, Marine Science is deemed one of the most popular and charismatic fields. The thing is, we don’t have a proper channelization mechanism for our Marine science graduates. We have taken the ocean for granted and we don’t use its resources in an optimal way. Neither do we explore the blessings it contains or thinks about the sustainable development of its resources.
Over here, no fish of the sea is commercially grown. If we haven’t been able to do such an essential thing, it speaks volumes of our inaction and apathy towards our ocean. Our neighboring countries are way ahead of us in this field, for example, Iran, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, etc. We need to think about priorities for our institutions. Do we want to become degree-awarding institutes, or we want skillful graduates. They can achieve remarkable goals in Marine Science and can run big marine ventures, industries, and projects which are worth international recognition? A lot of close attention and supervision is required.
Scientia: What do you think, with increasing activities in the Marine Science department at KU and Lasbela University of Marine Sciences, we can motivate our youth for research in this field?
Dr. Kiani: Our institutions celebrate different events throughout the year, like World Ocean Day, on 8th June. Other than this, Turtle’s Day, Whale Shark’s Day and World Maritime Day, etc. All these and other similar ones like Seafarer’s Day see arrangements of workshops, seminars, symposiums, and pieces of training, etc. Many of these events inspire and motivate our students. Despite this, I would say that both of our universities (KU and LUOMS) should join hands with provinces to develop their marine science sector in the right direction. We need to introduce courses of applied nature which should help us to solve our common problems, and from which our country’s produce from the oceans is improved. In this way, our exports can be significantly enhanced. It’s not very difficult.
Previously, in the 80s and 90s, Pakistan has had significant achievements. So we should work in this direction and prioritize these things. We should understand the fact that as long as our economy does not diversify, we and our country cannot come out of this crisis. If we only concentrate on agriculture and fill our plates with that, it is not possible in today’s age of science and technology to flourish. We should adopt and take such steps in every field to progress, develop institutes, and train our people in skills. I think our institutes are still not performing optimally. We need a proper vision for the challenges of the future. We need a comprehensive dialogue regarding priorities for the upcoming years. A clear example is the CPEC project. All we need is integrity, dedication, and professionalism.
Scientia: What is the role of the departments of wildlife, whether provincial or at the district level, especially regarding the green sea turtles?
Dr. Kiani: I have highlighted in previous questions, the marine sciences institutes have been facing many in-built problems; still, our departments have a few extraordinary achievements to their credit, which are remarkable and worth acknowledging. Like, I highlighted the Sindh Wildlife Department, which has banned the killing and trade of all the turtles. Under the Wildlife Protection Act, it is a crime to kill them. From time to time, different amendments are made in these Acts to protect any new endangered species highlighted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Otherworld conservation organizations also exist which highlight these species and increase their level of protection. I would especially like to mention some endangered species like whale sharks, dolphins, whales, etc. have recently received protective status. These additions are near approval by our assemblies and then will be brought into action and enforcement soon. Exactly similar work is being done by Balochistan Wildlife Department and it participates in these activities with great enthusiasm.
One thing which I much feel as a wildlife conservationist, working for the last fifteen years, is that our government institutes are a little bit more complacent and work while staying a bit reserved due to their limitations. If they have proper policies and five-year plans for their priorities, they can protect the endangered species and biodiversity of our country in a very efficient way. We can safeguard them for our future generations, and secondly, they are an essential integral part of the habitat and ecosystem of our country.
And if we can establish ecotourism after proper research, then it can become a source of livelihood for our people as well. For example, people come on turtle-nesting beaches to watch turtles. And if they follow proper protocols and don’t disturb the turtles in any way, they can see turtles laying eggs in their natural habitat. This will meet their wish of seeing turtles living naturally in their wild habitat. All these things are lovely to ordinary people.
So, that is why it is important to work on proper guidelines and have a sustainable use of the wildlife so that our future generations can take pride in their forefathers who left a good legacy for them to follow.
Scientia: What are the primary reasons behind the increasing death toll of Olive Turtles on the shores of Karachi and Balochistan coastal line?
Dr. Kiani: The accidental entanglements and ultimately deaths are rapidly increasing in our ocean despite the Wildlife Protection Act. Somehow, the implementation of this Act is lagging behind and we are not able to protect these turtles. So, here again, the reason is that the laws that we make require a parallel process of scientific research and data collection and the required data upon which we base our laws.
We need to keep collecting such data. Regarding this, we have done ground-breaking work with the coordination of Karachi University, WWF Pakistan, and some international organizations which funded us in 2011 and 2012. Indo- Pacific Fund for cetacean Research and Conservation by the Australian government as well as areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) projects and other small grants. Other than this, WWF-Pakistan, KU, and different other leading institutes like Marine Fisheries Department cooperated with us, and we launched a project which was related to tuna gillnetters in the sea, which use fishing nets of the length of 2.5 km or above.
Occasionally, nets as long as 15 km also come across. These are regarded as “walls of death” in the ocean. All animals that are stuck in them, especially those which are air breathers can get entangled to death. In such entanglements, especially turtles that we mentioned before, seabirds, dolphins, whales, and mega-large fauna including sharks, whales, etc. are all worth mentioning.
A shocking finding in the previous 4 to 5 years in this project is that, on the beaches of Pakistan, during the decade 1990 to 2000, turtles that came for egg-laying included green turtles and olive turtles. But then in the late 1990s, the olive turtles suddenly vanished and were not spotted nesting at beaches at all. They weren’t laying eggs anywhere either. Compared to this, the green turtles are still spotted on our shores in large numbers. Hawkes Beach (Karachi coast) is famous regarding the nesting of green turtles and features among the most significant beaches of the world for green turtle nesting.
The sudden disappearance of the Olive turtles posed a huge question mark as it was beyond our understanding. But we sent our observers on big Tuna fishing vessels and we trained the captains of those ships as well as the crew to collect data for us. We gave them cameras and other gadgets like Global Positioning System (GPS). We gave them special protocol forms to fill for us. We got to know that, even now, in the ocean, the olive turtle is present in a huge number. This is another debate that this turtle has developed a dislike for our beaches and is also not laying eggs there.
There was a time when we counted 28000 plus turtles of mixed species in our nets. And the boats that I am mentioning are tuna fishing vessels. There are about 700 big and small boats that work in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Pakistan. So we got to know that the turtles are there in such a big number.
Scientia: Besides sea Turtles, what are the major threats to other marine species?
Dr. Kiani: Thousands of dolphins were counted to die each year in Tuna fishing gillnets. This was extrapolated for the figures obtained from observers onboard tuna fishing vessels. In analytical science, “to extrapolate” means that we forecast further with the help of our sample data. We got to know that nearly 12000 dolphins and 28000 turtles are dying annually. This was an eye-opener and quite shocking to hear. We worked on gear modification with our fishermen and told them to use the eco-friendly gear. Unintended wildlife should not get stuck in the net and die.
We also devised a little technique for modification of fishing method to reduce dolphin mortality in tuna gill netting by our own experience and it was that if you attach a weight to your net so that it submerges about 2m deep in water instead of remaining on the surface, mortality rate decreases. This method was tested in some boats and after achieving promising results, many boats were approached for the adoption of this new modification in tuna gillnetting. As a result, the figures for the next season showed less than 100 dolphins, and low 10s of turtles died as a result of entanglement in tuna gillnets.
This was a significant success, and it earned immense appreciation and acknowledgment on the international level. A lot of literature is available on the Internet, especially on the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission website. You will find reports of dolphins and sharks etc. in Pakistan over there. I will encourage you to read this literature if you want to enlighten yourself on this topic because it’s real practical science and, most importantly, features authentic data.
Read Also, Turtles on the beeches of Makran are at risk
Saadeqa Khan is the founder, CEO, & Editor-in-Chief of Scientia Pakistan. Saadeqa got National Science Award 2019 (GOP), Agahi Award 2020, and Berlin Science week 2020 journalism grant. She is one of the finalists for the British FDM everywomen in Tech award 2021 in the academic category.